Making a wormhole just got easier...
...but it's no simple matter.
2 June 2003
|A bit of 'exotic matter' and you could be going
Good news for time travellers - it just got cheaper. The amount material
needed to build a window through time is infinitesimally small, new research
To travel through time, all you need to do is open a wormhole in
space-time and step through it. And to do that you need a magic ingredient
called 'exotic matter', which is repelled rather than attracted by gravity.
The hitch is that no one has the remotest idea how to make exotic
matter. But don't despair, say Matt Visser, of the Victoria University of
Wellington in New Zealand, and his colleagues. They have shown that when we do
figure out how to make the stuff, we won't need very much of it1.
As Star Trek: Deep Space 9, Quantum
Leap and Stargate have taught us, wormholes are
the preferred mode of transport for today's fashionable time-traveller. These
hypothetical tunnels connect distant parts of space-time, the fabric of our
Universe. And despite the philosophical havoc that wormholes wreak with notions
of causality, Einstein's theory of general relativity - which describes
space-time - allows them to exist.
Six years ago, Visser and his colleague David Hochberg showed that in
order to stay open, wormholes need exotic matter. It's weird stuff, however -
it can be considered to have negative energy, meaning that it has even less
than empty space. It's the same as saying that it experiences gravity as a
repulsive force, and physicists have never encountered anything of the
So they imagine it. They key to exotic matter lies in quantum
fluctuations, which give empty space a kind of fizziness. Quantum theory says
that subatomic particles and their corresponding antiparticles are continually
popping in and out of existence in the vacuum of empty space. Exotic matter
might arise by suppressing this fizz, or as a physicist would say, by violating
the averaged null energy condition (ANEC).
If this were to happen, quantum effects could give rise to tiny amounts
of exotic matter. But how much is needed to sustain a wormhole?
That is what Visser and colleagues have now calculated. They find that,
if the wormhole is designed carefully, "the total quantity of ANEC-violating
matter can be made infinitesimally small". This makes a wormhole considerably
easier to create.
Back to the future again
It's not the first time that traversable wormholes have been pulled out
of a pit of implausibility. In the 1980s the British astrophysicist Stephen
Hawking conjectured that even if you could make a wormhole stabilized by exotic
matter, you couldn't go through it to travel in time and space, because even a
single particle would destabilize it.
This became known as the Chronology Protection Conjecture. It was a
relief for philosophers who were trying to protect the notion of causality. The
paradox they envisioned - immortalised in the movie Back to the Future - was
that if wormholes could exist it would theoretically be possible to go back in
time and prevent your parents from meeting. This would prevent your own
existence, and therefore your ability to go back in time.
But physicists subsequently thought of a way around this problem - there
are, for example, 'time loops' threading through a wormhole along which
backwards time travel is possible, but without its being able to alter the
Sadly, an infinitely small amount of exotic matter is not the same as
none at all. So until someone figures out how to get hold of it (not to mention
how to open up a wormhole in the first place), you can forget about trips to
the Jurassic era - or your parents' first date.